Classical conditioning (or Pavlovian conditioning) is a form of learning in which one stimulus, the conditioned stimulus, comes to signal the occurrence of a second stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus. Classical conditioning is when a dog learns to associate things in its environment, or discovers some things just go together. A dog may become afraid of rain through an association with thunder and lightning, or it may respond to the owner putting on a particular pair of shoes by fetching its leash. Classical conditioning is used in dog training to help a dog make specific associations with a particular stimulus, particularly in overcoming fear of people and situations.
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If your city requires dogs to be licensed, get this taken care of right away. Licenses can usually be purchased at the Vet's office. Even if your city does not require a license, it's a good idea to provide contact information on your dog's collar. If your pet is lost or stolen, microchipping is a good way to ensure his safe return. Collars can come off, but microchips are there to stay. Dogs adopted from Wags & Walks are microchipped prior to adoption - we will send you an email shortly after the adoption is complete to confirm your preferred contact information before transferring the microchip to your name.
Marian Breland Bailey played a major role in developing empirically validated and humane animal training methods and in promoting their widespread implementation. Marian was a graduate student under B.F. Skinner. Her first husband Keller Breland also came to study with Skinner and they collaborated with him, training pigeons to guide bombs. The Brelands saw the commercial possibilities of operant training, founding Animal Behavior Enterprises (ABE). In 1955, they opened the "I.Q. Zoo" as both a training facility and a showcase of trained animals. They were among the first to use trained animals in television commercials, and the first to train dolphins and whales as entertainment, as well as for the navy. Keller died in 1965, and in 1976 Marian married Bob Bailey, who had been director of marine mammal training for the navy. They pioneered the use of the clicker as a conditioned reinforcer for training animals at a distance. ABE went on to train thousands of animals of more than 140 species. Their work had significant public exposure through press coverage of ABE-trained animals, bringing the principles of behavior analysis and operant conditioning to a wide audience.
Have the handlers down their dogs; then leave their dogs by saying “stay,” moving their hand in front of the dogs face and then walking away with the leg furthest from the dog to the end of the leash. They will then turn and face the dog. Try to keep the handlers from putting any tension on the leash as this may cause the dog to get up. If the dog does move, the handler should move quickly to tell the dog “no,” put them back into place and leave them again.
When it comes to training, you must define what is keeping your dog from picking up what you are teaching; defining if your dog has what problems or why problems can alleviate frustration. Professor Donaldson explains how to motivate a dog and adjust your rate of reinforcement for these and a number of other common obstacles that may stand in his way. She also provides tips for transitioning out of training mode and into integrating what your dog has learned into common behaviors. x
Unless you plan to keep your dog outdoors--and few of us do because it's not recommended--you'll need to teach your dog where to eliminate. Therefore, house training (also called housebreaking or potty training) is one of the first things you need to work on with your dog. Crate training can be a very helpful part of the training process. This includes house training as well as many other areas of training:
Keep your dog’s training sessions short. Puppies have especially short attention spans, but all dogs need breaks so that they don’t get bored or distracted. Some puppies may only be able to focus on training for about five minutes at a time. Older dogs may last 15 or 20 minutes before becoming bored with the task at hand. A little playtime between training sessions is a great way to keep your dog focused and reward him for his hard work.
Praise the dog by telling him “good boy” every time he toilets outside. Make sure that he knows this is behavior that is pleasing. Choose a location and keep taking your dog to the same spot for toileting and be consistent with this every time in the beginning. He will quickly learn to recognize the scent and understand that this is where he takes care of business. Remain with your dog until he is done.
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Contrary to the old cliché, you can teach old dogs new tricks—and new dogs old tricks. Professor Donaldson reviews the ages and stages of dog maturity and has tips for which training to start your puppies with and how to choose the right puppy socialization class. She provides insightful instructions on training older dogs as well, including how to consider any physical ailments they may have. x
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The 21st century has seen the proliferation of television programs and accompanying books that feature dog training and rehabilitation, including Joel Silverman's Good Dog U, Dog Whisperer with Cesar Millan, It's Me or the Dog featuring Victoria Stillwell, The Underdog Show, Dogs in the City, and SuperFetch. The Association of Pet Dog Trainers advises that television programs are produced primarily for entertainment, and while all programs will have good and not-so-good points, the viewer should critically evaluate the information before deciding which training tips to adopt.
In considering the natural behaviours of specific breeds of dogs, it is possible to train them to perform specialised, highly useful, tasks. For example, Labrador retrievers are the favoured breed for the detection of explosives. This is because of a combination of factors including their food drive which enables them to keep focused on a task despite noise and other distractions. Most working breeds of dogs are able to be trained to find people with their sense of smell (as opposed to their sense of sight). Cocker Spaniels are able to be trained as part of a termite detection team. Their relatively small size enables them to fit into small spaces, and their light weight allows them to walk on areas of ceiling which would be dangerous to anything heavier. In fact, although unusual, termite detection dogs are much more reliable at detecting termites than humans who rely on a basic system of tapping and listening. Because of their ability to learn signals by sight and for their energetic and athletic natures, German Shepherds are able to be trained for work alongside search and rescue teams and human apprehension teams.
“Down” can be taught very similarly to “sit.” You can wait for your dog to lie down (beginning in a boring, small room such as a bathroom can help) and capture the behavior by reinforcing your dog with a treat when he lies down, giving him his release cue to stand back up (and encouragement with a lure if needed) and then waiting for him to lie down again. When he is quickly lying down after standing up, you can begin saying “down” right before he does so.
The ideal time to begin toilet training a dog is when they are 3 to 4 months of age. Younger pups generally haven’t mastered bladder control before this time. Older dogs are more difficult to train but not impossible. Isolate the dog in a smaller area which could be a room, a spacious crate or placing them on a tether. The area can be enlarged as they begin to understand where they are to evacuate. Establish regular mealtimes while toilet training. Offer regular opportunities to go to the bathroom starting about fifteen minutes after the meal is eaten and then every 30 to 60 minutes throughout the day.
Handler should walk off with the leg closest to the dog while clearly and loudly saying the dog’s name and “heel.” Dog should heel at side with lead in handler’s left hand, unless the dog is hard to handle. If this is the case, the handler would put the lead in the right hand and have the left hand placed on the leash a few inches away from the chain.
In general, those individuals employed as dog trainers are largely “self educated”. This means they have read extensively on behavior modification and dog ethology, attended seminars, workshops and conventions, and perhaps mentored with other trainers. There are some “dog training schools”. As a matter of policy, at this time the APDT cannot endorse any of the selected training programs that are available around the country. When you investigate a school, be sure to inquire about methods used.