Based on the principles of social learning, model-rival training uses a model, or a rival for attention, to demonstrate the desired behaviour.[65] The method was used by Irene Pepperberg to train Alex the African Grey Parrot to label a large number of objects. McKinley and Young undertook a pilot study on the applicability of a modified version of the model-rival method to the training of domestic dogs, noting that the dog's origins as a member of large and complex social groups promote observational learning. The model-rival training involved an interaction between the trainer, the dog, and a person acting as a model-rival, that is, a model for desired behaviour and a rival for the trainer's attention. In view of the dog, a dialogue concerning a particular toy commenced between the trainer and the model-rival. The trainer praised or scolded the model-rival depending on whether the model-rival had named the toy correctly. It was found that the performance times for completion of the task were similar for dogs trained with either operant conditioning or the model rival method. In addition, the total training time required for task completion was comparable for both methods.[66]
“Leave it” is one of the basic dog commands that can transform your pet into a reliable pet that has a tremendous amount of will power. It will give you more control over preventing your pet from picking something up with his mouth that he is considering. Start training by placing something that your dog wants to have within reach and telling him “leave it.” He may grab it anyway for the first few times, but be patient and continue to work with him. As he approaches the item, keep saying “leave it.” If he gets too close, pull him back repeating the phrase. Don’t let him have it, but when he obeys, give him a reward in the form of a treat and praise. Repeat the process until he fully understands and becomes compliant.

When it comes to training, you must define what is keeping your dog from picking up what you are teaching; defining if your dog has what problems or why problems can alleviate frustration. Professor Donaldson explains how to motivate a dog and adjust your rate of reinforcement for these and a number of other common obstacles that may stand in his way. She also provides tips for transitioning out of training mode and into integrating what your dog has learned into common behaviors. x
Training a dog to sit, lie down, stay, and come when called make your job as a pet parent easier, but they can also make your dog’s life better and safer. Knowing these commands can help you protect your dog from dangerous situations, and in some cases, save his life. Once you’ve learned how to properly teach your dog, training will be a fun and useful activity for you both.
Animal Learning. Classical and operant conditioning, positive and negative reinforcement, positive and negative punishment, conditioned reinforcers, discrimination, generalization, habituation, sensitization and desensitization, blocking and overshadowing, motivation, establishing operations, conditioned emotional responses. Comparisons of dog learning to human learning.
Fetch is a command that is very useful for socialization, exercise and obedience. Throwing a safe object for a distance will give your dog some excellent running time to build his muscles and improve his overall health and fitness. An additional benefit of this game is that it will help you to form a special bond with your pet. Play is positive attention and it’s good for both you and your dog. Most dogs will respond quickly to this game. When he chases the item that you throw, tell him to bring it to you. When he does, give him praise and a reward. Gradually decrease the rewards as he gains more understanding of what is going on. For this game, you can use the “drop it” command, or if you prefer the word “release,” they both work out the same.
Over time, the words “good dog” and the affectionate pat become secondary reinforcers. Because they have been paired with food in the past, they take on more meaning and become reinforcement in themselves. It is important to use secondary reinforcement because you will not always have food with you when you need your pet to obey. In addition, if you rely on food to get your puppy to comply, you will have a puppy that will only do the task when you have a treat.
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Dogs have become closely associated with humans through domestication and have also become sensitive to human communicative signals. Generally, they have a lot of exposure to human speech, especially during play, and are believed to have a good ability to recognize human speech. Two studies investigated the ability of a single dog that was believed to be exceptional in its understanding of language. Both studies revealed the potential for at least some dogs to develop an understanding of a large number of simple commands on the basis of just the sounds emitted by their owners. However the studies suggested that visual cues from the owner may be important for the understanding of more complex spoken commands.[77]


Some dogs are fearful and when they are exposed to frightening situations, they need to have your reassurance that everything is going to be okay. Gradual exposure to new situations is the best approach. If your dog is afraid of loud noises, start with moderate situations, staying right beside your pet, and increase the exposure giving lots of affection and reassurance, but don’t stress your dog unnecessarily. Overexposure to fearful situations can lead to phobias. Dogs become phobic when they are left alone, victimized by abusive humans or other animals, or neglected by their owners. Giving them reassurance and the best possible care with lots of love and attention increases the odds of having a well adjusted dog.


…among others. So, before you even bring your puppy home, you need to do some research to figure out which dog training method you would like to use, and what commands you'll need to teach your puppy first. Then, once you’ve chosen how you want to train your dog, you will need to find a guide or manual to help you along the way. That's where the best dog training books come in!
Fetch is a command that is very useful for socialization, exercise and obedience. Throwing a safe object for a distance will give your dog some excellent running time to build his muscles and improve his overall health and fitness. An additional benefit of this game is that it will help you to form a special bond with your pet. Play is positive attention and it’s good for both you and your dog. Most dogs will respond quickly to this game. When he chases the item that you throw, tell him to bring it to you. When he does, give him praise and a reward. Gradually decrease the rewards as he gains more understanding of what is going on. For this game, you can use the “drop it” command, or if you prefer the word “release,” they both work out the same.
Don’t overwhelm your dog by expecting too much at first. Start slow by working on basic commands, such as “sit,” and keep training sessions short. You can gradually train your dog for longer periods of time and move on to more complex commands, such as “leave it,” once basic training is successful. As your dog learns these basic commands, it becomes easier to start training your dog on the more difficult ones.
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